Be Prepared for the Invasive Spotted Lanternfly, Entomologists Warn
By Ed Ricciuti
The Scout Motto is the best advice for pest managers who want to establish a first line of defense against problematic invasive insects even before they become established, according to Dr. Surendra Dara, an IPM and crop advisor at the University of California. “Be Prepared,” is what he and his co-authors suggest in a paper published in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management on possible tactics to manage the invasive spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula), which was detected last year in Pennsylvania. Pest managers who ignore reports of a new invasive species such as the spotted lanternfly because it is not yet established in their locale do so at their own peril, he said.
A planthopper in the family Fulgoridae, this undeniably colorful, inch-long insect can be enormously destructive to crops, timber, and ornamental plants. Among the 40 plant species counted as its hosts are grapes, peaches, apples, dogwood, maples, walnut, oak, and pines.
The brilliant colors–– red, black, and white — of the spotted lanternfly reveal one of the reasons why it is difficult to control by using natural enemies. Its hues are warning colors that alert predators to the fact that the lanternfly is toxic due to poisons called cytotoxic alkaloids, which it metabolizes from some of its host plants. While the coloration of the forewings helps camouflage the lanternfly against a tree trunk, Dr. Dara says, the sudden flash of its vivid hindwings, when opened, startles predators and scares them away. Some birds have been seen vomiting after ingesting the insect. Although it is also toxic to humans, the lanternfly has been used in low quantities by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine to treat consumption and swelling.
Native to northern China, the spotted lanternfly has spread to other parts of Asia, notably Korea and Japan. It has caused considerable damage in those countries, which is why state authorities in Berks County, Pennsylvania quarantined five townships and issued an alert document to help people identify the pest. The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture removed more than 100,000 of the insects in 2015 alone, according to Dr. Dara’s paper. The adults are easy to catch because they seldom fly off when approached, preferring to hop away. Based in California, Dr. Dara’s focus on the spotted lanternfly is partly motivated by its potential threat to vineyards.
“I don’t want to scare people,” he said, “but it has the potential to spread, and we do not have a biological-control agent.” He stresses that even though the lanternfly remains confined to a small area of Pennsylvania, pest managers best be ready to identify it and be familiar with its biology and the control methods used elsewhere.
In Korea, the lanternfly has one generation a year. It lays eggs from August to November, usually in masses on smooth-barked trees, sometimes on inanimate objects such as fence posts and stones. Eggs are sometimes dispersed on materials transported by people. Spring brings the hatch, usually early in the day. The nymphs are black with white spots in the first three instars. The fourth and final instar is red and black. Adults grossly resemble some moths, but with a wider abdomen.
Dr. Dara’s paper provides a detailed description of both nymphs and adults. He also describes feeding methods, including the fact that older nymphs and adults often feed in groups, one of the clues to their identity. Adults and nymphs pierce the phloem and suck out soft tissue with their mouthparts. Heavy feeding causes wounds that ooze on tree trunks. The honeydew then accumulates around the base of the trees and serves as a medium for sooty mold, which can injure or kill the tree.
Most natural enemies of the spotted lanternfly are not effective enough for controlling them, according to Dr. Dara, nor are generalist predators. Parasitic controls are few, although a few that are native to Asia may work there. A parasitic wasp called Anastatus orientalis may have potential because it is reported to parasitize up to 69 percent of spotted lanternfly eggs in China.
“Where they are found, preserving natural enemies could significantly lessen the risk of this insect reaching pest status,” Dr. Dara said.
Among chemical controls, some broad-spectrum pyrethroids, several botanical insecticides, and a few others seem to reduce adult populations. But pesticides seem to be ineffective for long-term control, and lanternflies can quickly repopulate vineyards after spraying.
Sticky bands around the trunks of host trees, preferably colored brown, can be used to trap large numbers of young nymphs as they ascend. Dr. Dara suggests some attractants may be effective when trapping lanternflies, and a few agents may repel them. However, they all need more testing. Adults and nymphs in the second-to-fourth instar stage appear to be attracted to spearmint oil, which could be used for control purposes. For now, the spotted lanternfly remains confined to a small area of Pennsylvania, but according to Dr. Dara, all appropriate interests should stand by, keep watch, and — especially — be ready.
Read more at:
– Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae): A New Invasive Pest in the United States
– The Spotted Lanternfly: An Invasive Insect that is Beautiful but Threatening
Ed Ricciuti is a journalist, author, and naturalist who has been writing for more than a half century. His latest book is called Bears in the Backyard: Big Animals, Sprawling Suburbs, and the New Urban Jungle (Countryman Press, June 2014). His assignments have taken him around the world. He specializes in nature, science, conservation issues, and law enforcement. A former curator at the New York Zoological Society, and now at the Wildlife Conservation Society, he may be the only man ever bitten by a coatimundi on Manhattan’s 57th Street.
Appreciate the thoughtful alert.
saw one of these last summer in S. Oregon and it flew off as I was about to sqwish it. It had GIANT red eyes. Next time (hopefully not a next time) Ill snap a photo, Its wingspan was that of a monarch butterfly. Very easy to spot b.c they are so unusual looking. Now I know why I didnt find in any of my insect books.
seems they have found a fungi that will control it. https://www.popsci.com/fungi-invasive-species-spotted-lantern-fly-pesticide/
I have 15+ acres of mostly woods w/ in the quarantined area. Two summers ago (2014), my cleome flowers were infested and sucked dry by what I now believe were the red and black nymphs. I would walk around the plant and hundreds of nymphs would shift. I thought they were stink bug nymphs, but looking back I am pretty sure they were lantern fly nymphs – I am a bee keeper and keenly aware of insects. These were something new. Last summer (2015) I found my first adult, which led to many more being found + egg masses being found by the PA DofA on my stands of Tree of Heaven. I’ve cut down about 50 mature tree of heaven and have about 20 banded. Nymphs have been identified by PA DoA this spring (May 2016) Unfortunately, people in the quarantined area work as far as NJ, Philly/Allentown/Reading etc. and we are not far from major interstates I-78, PA Tpk which both connect w I-95. I can’t imagine this being contained. What I have not seen mentioned is the tell tale sign of “fang marks” (2 bore holes about and inch apart ) with drips of sap/water. I found this indicator on norway maple and extensively on the tree of heaven. Also, the adults do not fly, they hop & at great speed, akin to a grass hopper but they can do it horizontally from tree to tree – signifiant distance and very quickly. After being in the epicenter of marmorated stink bugs which are now becoming a year round pest (you have to experience them to believe their nuisance) we need more attention paid to control and hopefully eliminate these pests before they spread. Fingers crossed!
You wrote this artical two years ago. Unfortunately I do not believe Pennsylvania did enough to get the word out. I live in a quarantined county in PA. The Spotted Lantern Fly has arrived and it seems to me spreading like wild fire. Do you have any updates on how to get rid of them. Some neighbors have called professionals to come and spray but we have also had an unusual wet/rain summer that I do believe that is like throwing money down the drain as the sprays will wash off. I have trashed many eggs/babies/and now the adults flying everywhere. Any suggestions would be helpful.
The boom is horrifying in Boyertown Pa currently, and the lack of info, led me to believe that I am not doing enough killing the few I saw, until I killed so many, and then started to see hundreds a day anyway, and hearing from so many in our area where it is no longer possible to stop as an individual. I am shocked that their is no other updates or info about the onslaught, particularly this year…its like the new stink bug, but not stinky, and not something I can control on my own, or amongst other neighbors. 2 years ago, I spotted one, pun not intended, and submitted a picture to a bug ID site, because I had never seen one before. 2 years later they are everywhere, and I mean everywhere here in Boyertown PA. I look out my window, a half a twin, with only 2 trees on my property, and its nothing to see 10 of them flying around at any given moment, let alone the bunches on my house, window screens, and the amount my son saw at his high school today was crazy…he said they must love black surfaces, because they were all over black lamp posts and his truck tires.
I was outside and I saw these on a tree what should I do then??
I live near ground zero for lantern fly introduction and am seeing an explosion of preying mantis and have observed them eating lanternfly…..just one more avenue of research….
Here’s a homemade, environmentally friendly way to kill them on contact (one at a time). I have dozens of these on my back deck that I take great pleasure in routinely killing them with this spray. In a spray bottle, mix 1.5 tablespoons of rubbing alcohol, 1.5 tablespoons of dishwashing liquid (I used Dawn, but I would imagine any would do), and 1 cup of water. Shake or mix. Voila! Happy spraying!! Note: they do hop and fly, so the trick is to get them from above or behind…
I don’t think they are confined to a small areas in PA. I’ve seen large population of them in Collegeville, PA and Allentown, PA. That is about 1 hr distance away. So, I think the pest has grown. :-(
My neighbor around the corner has a grapevine and they found and killed plenty of lantern flies. I cut back my grapevine and looked really carefully around my backyard and found, so far, nothing. I also grow lots of Jerusalem artichokes in my garden. Could they possibly be a repellent? Also had the ground treated for termites some weeks ago.
I’ve been looking and looking for these bugs and so far nothing.