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bumblee bee pesticide exposure routes

bumblee bee pesticide exposure routes

A new special collection in Environmental Entomology examines existing research on pesticide exposure routes for non-honey bees and how risk assessment protocols might be improved to account for the differences between honey bees and their bumble bee, solitary bee, and stingless bee cousins. One report in the collection focuses on bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and features these conceptual models of pesticide exposure to bumble bees from foliar-applied systemic or nonsystemic pesticides (A) and systemic pesticide seed treatments (B). Black boxes indicate stressors and residue sources, solid gray boxes denote exposure matrices, and double-lined gray boxes represent receptors. (Image originally published in Gradish et al 2018, Environmental Entomology )

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