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red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)

red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta)

For her master’s degree, Texas A&M University graduate student Valerie Renee Holmes studied red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and the viruses that afflict them. In the course of that work, she realized that a thorough review of immunity among eusocial insects in the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) hadn’t been done, and so she published such a review in December 2021 in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America. (Photo by Mikaela Egbert via iNaturalist, CC BY-NC)

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