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brown and white mutant melon fly pupae

Viewed from above, three rows of melon fly pupae are lined up on a white surface. Those in the top row range from dark brown to very light yellowish-brown, and a text label reads "wildtype." The pupae in the middle row are mottled brown and white in coloration, and text labels read "G0, brown-white pupae mosaic." The pupae in the bottom row are nearly pure white, with text labels reading "G1, white pupae (wp)."

Three sets of melon fly (Zeugodacus cucurbitae) pupae illustrate the changes resulting from CRISPR/Cas9 genetic editing. In the top row, wild-type, unaltered melon fly pupae display a range of normal brown pupae coloration. In the middle row are white pupae mutants obtained in the first generation after using CRISPR to knock out an important gene related to the normal pigmentation in pupal stage of fruit flies. These individuals are called “mosaics,” because only some of their cells harbor loss-of-function mutation in the targeted gene. In the bottom row are white pupae mutants of the melon fly developed after breeding mosaic flies from the first generation. (Photo by Daniel Paulo, Ph.D.)

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