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grape leaf with galls

Closeup of a green leaf with a jagged edge. In three spots on the leaf, small round growths have formed, each the same medium-green color as the leaf and slightly fuzzy in texture.

The gall-sampling process involves cutting the gall, such as the three grape phylloxera galls shown on the grape leaf here, putting it in a jar filled water or a solvent such as methanol, sealing the jar so it is airtight, and sending it to a lab for analysis. (Photo by Leslie Mertz, Ph.D.)

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