Advances in microscopic imaging techniques are revealing, in unprecedented detail, the structure of mycangia—the internal organs that ambrosia beetles use to store and transport the symbiotic fungi they farm.
Insects have evolved a variety of mechanisms to try to overcome the effects of insecticides—including, in some cases, help from the bacteria and other microbes living in insects' guts. A growing number of studies indicate a link between symbiotic microbes and insecticide resistance in a diverse range of insects.
In cicadas, a world of microbes has evolved to provide them nutrients. Researchers at the University of Montana have discovered that a cicada bacterial endosymbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, has split into at least two dozen lineages within cicada cells, in an apparent case of nonadaptive evolution.
While many animals, like humans, consume a varied diet to get their necessary nutrition, some insects can extract nourishment from a nutritionally poor food source through symbioses with microbial symbionts.