Mosquito Repellents: DEET and PMD Sprays Most Effective, While Wearable Devices Disappoint, Study Finds

Aedes aegypti mosquito

A search for “mosquito repellent” on Amazon.com delivers more than 28,000 product results. For a regular consumer, it can be difficult to find the ones that truly work among a sea of products that make bold claims. Researchers at the Molecular Vector Physiology Laboratory at New Mexico State University are working to make the search […]

New Federal Report on Aedes Mosquitoes Could Signal Shift in How Zika Virus and Other Pathogens are Researched

The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary carrier of the Zika virus. A new federal report offers new directions for research and development of mosquito-control efforts.

By Johanna Elsensohn Throughout the world, a single mosquito bite can have one of many consequences: mild infection, severe illness, birth defects, death, or, for the majority of people, just a small, itchy bite mark. Of the greater than 3,500 mosquito species out there, a small percentage have the ability to carry a pathogen that […]

Could a Large-Scale Zika Outbreak Occur in the United States?

water storage tanks

By Josh Lancette While recent news cycles in the United States largely have been dominated by election coverage, the threat of Zika remains a concern both locally and globally, with a recent outbreak in Brownsville, Texas, a study finding more than half of Brazilian women are avoiding pregnancy because of Zika, and the CDC sending […]

Zika Symposium at 2016 International Congress of Entomology

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Yesterday at the 2016 International Congress of Entomology in Orlando, Florida in September 2016, international scientists shared the latest research about the Zika virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Speakers included Dr. Stephen Higgs from Kansas State University, Dr. Brian Foy from Colorado State University, Dr. Constancia Ayres from Fiocruz in Brazil, Dr. Anthony James from […]

Study Suggests Culex Mosquitoes Are Unable to Transmit Zika in the U.S.

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Researchers have identified the Zika virus in mosquito species other than Aedes aegypti, which is largely responsible for the current outbreaks of Zika infection, raising concerns that other mosquitoes may be capable of transmitting the virus. However, a new study demonstrates that mosquitoes in the genus Culex are highly unlikely to transmit the infection to […]

Wolbachia Bacterium Prevents Mosquitoes from Transmitting Zika and Chikungunya

2006
Prof. Frank Hadley Collins, Dir., Cntr. for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Univ. of Notre Dame

This 2006 image depicted a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she was obtaining a blood-meal from a human host through her fascicle, which had penetrated the host skin, was reddening in color, reflecting the blood’s coloration through this tubular structure. In this case, what would normally be an unsuspecting host was actually the CDC’s biomedical photographer’s own hand, which he’d offered to the hungry mosquito so that she’d alight, and be photographed while feeding. As it filled with blood, the abdomen became distended, stretched the exterior exoskeletal surface, causing it to become transparent, and allowed the collecting blood to become visible as an enlarging intra-abdominal red mass.

Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by urban Aedes mosquitos, principally A. aegypti, a species found living in close association with humans in most tropical urban areas. Mosquito biting activity is greatest in the morning for several hours after daybreak and in the late afternoon for several hours before dark. It may feed all day indoors, in shady areas, or when it is overcast. This mosquito breeds in artificial water containers, such as discarded tires, cans, barrels, buckets, 55 gallon drums, flower vases, and cisterns, all frequently found in the domestic environment. Since 1980, the incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in tropical countries worldwide, with endemic and/or epidemic virus transmission documented in most countries of the Caribbean Basin, Central and South America, the Pacific Islands, Asia, and Africa; many countries have had multiple outbreaks. Epidemics are frequently not reported because of inadequate disease surveillance.

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have confirmed that a benign bacterium called Wolbachia pipientis can completely block transmission of Zika virus in Aedes aegypti, the mosquito species responsible for passing the virus to humans. Matthew Aliota, a first author of a paper published in the journal Scientific Reports, says the bacteria could present a […]

Free Articles Provide Insight on the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

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This week is National Mosquito Control Awareness Week, and the Entomological Society of America is supporting the effort with a special collection of articles about the Asian tiger mosquito. Like its close relative Aedes aegypti, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been in the news recently due to its ability to transmit pathogens that […]

Scientists Track Mosquitoes that Transmit Zika and Dengue by County

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By Harvey Black As mosquito-borne diseases that were once rare or unseen in the United States are making their presence known in the country, a team of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Colorado State University is calling for greater efforts to systematically map the presence of the vectors carrying these […]

Entomologists and Medical Experts Participate in Zika Symposium

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(This blog post contains excerpts from an article by Kathy Keatley Garvey.) On May 26, 2016 a symposium on Zika was held at the University of California, Davis. Speakers included entomologists, immunologists, infectious disease experts, epidemiologists, and other experts from the U.S. and Brazil. All of the presentations were videotaped and transcribed, and you can […]

Education, Mosquito Management Programs, and Cooperation Needed to Stop Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya

2006
Prof. Frank Hadley Collins, Dir., Cntr. for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Univ. of Notre Dame

This 2006 photograph depicted a female Aedes aegypti mosquito while she was in the process of acquiring a blood meal from her human host, who in this instance, was actually the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, here at the Centers for Disease Control.  The feeding apparatus consisting of a sharp, orange-colored “fascicle”, which while not feeding, is covered in a soft, pliant sheath called the "labellum”, which retracts as the sharp stylets contained within pierce the host's skin surface, as the insect obtains its blood meal. The orange color of the fascicle is due to the red color of the blood as it migrates up the thin, sharp translucent tube. Note the distended abdominal exoskeleton, which being translucent, allowed the color of the ingested blood meal to be visible.

DF and DHF are primarily diseases of tropical and sub-tropical areas, and the four different dengue serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), are maintained in a cycle that involves humans and the Aedes mosquito. However, Aedes aegypti, a domestic, day-biting mosquito that prefers to feed on humans, is the most common Aedes species. Infections produce a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors for DHF include the strain of the infecting virus, as well as the age, and especially the prior dengue infection history of the patient.

The Entomological Society of America (ESA) and Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil (SEB) held a Summit in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil on 13 March, 2016 to discuss the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is the primary transmitter of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. While the Summit featured talks on many aspects of mosquito biology, behavior, and control, […]